A Guide to SQL Standard (4th Edition) by C. J. Date

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By C. J. Date

The former version of this booklet tested itself because the so much entire and comprehensible remedy of the SQL normal typically on hand. Many adjustments have happened within the SQL criteria global when you consider that that version was once released, even though: a huge new part, the Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI), used to be extra in 1995. one other significant new part, the continual kept Modules function (SQL/PSM), is nearing of completion and is because of be extra to the normal in past due 1996 or early 1997. the unique 1992 normal itself has been considerably replaced and corrected during the booklet of 2 large Technical Corrigenda, one in 1994 and one in 1996. All of those adjustments are mirrored during this Fourth variation. prior variants of this publication demonstrated a practice of cautious, transparent, and exact clarification of complicated technical fabric. This new version maintains that culture.

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On the other hand, all compilation passes following the parser prefer to assemble multiples of binary operators into single n -ary operator whenever possible, as shown on the right side of the same figure. This is especially important for very long IN lists that the parser converts into chains of Ors. Among other things, flattening will eliminate most of the stack-overflow problems in subsequent passes that are caused by very deep trees. The code inside SQL Server that performs the flattening is itself carefully written to use iteration rather than recursion whenever possible so that the algebrizer itself is not prone to the same problem.

Expressions that are not base columns should be aliased to have a column name in the result tablefor example, YEAR(orderdate) AS orderyear. Important Aliases created by the SELECT list cannot be used by earlier steps. In fact, expression aliases cannot even be used by other expressions within the same SELECT list. The reasoning behind this limitation is another unique aspect of SQL, being an all-at-once operation. For example, in the following SELECT list, the logical order in which the expressions are evaluated should not matter and is not guaranteed: SELECT c1 + 1 AS e1, c2 + 1 AS e2.

It's as though in a join there's no precedence between the two inputs when evaluating them. With APPLY, it's as though the left input is evaluated first, and then the right input is evaluated once for each row from the left. Step A1 is always applied in both CROSS APPLY and OUTER APPLY. Step A2 is applied only for OUTER APPLY. CROSS APPLY doesn't return an outer (left) row if the inner (right) table expression returns an empty set for it. OUTER APPLY will return such a row, with NULLs in the inner table expression's attributes.

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