A revision of the genus Cinchona by Maria Lucia Kawasaki

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By Maria Lucia Kawasaki

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An increased content of Asc protects proteins and lipids against oxidative damage in plants subjected to water and salt stress (Tambussi et al. 2000; Shalata and 1 Regulatory Role of Components of Ascorbate–Glutathione Pathway 15 Neumann 2001). The protective effects of Asc was documented also in plants exposed to ozone (Sanmartin et al. 2003). Retsky et al. (1993) demonstrated that plants accumulate also DHA during stress. DHA is able to act as an antioxidant. The effectivity of DHA was even higher than Asc when low-density lipoprotein from copper ion induced oxidation was investigated.

2004, 2006). Glutathione is able to induce PR transcript induction (Gómez et al. 2004a,b), whereas localized cell death occurs in Asc deficient plants (Pastori et al. 2003). These effects point to opposing functions for GSH and Asc in redox signal transduction. A striking relationship between glutathione oxidation and mitochondrial DNA damage during aging has also been reported (Yen et al. 1994; Esteve et al. 1999). In addition, accumulation of GSSG is often associated with tissue death or quiescence (Wachter et al.

2003). Glutathione, the next component of ascorbate–glutathione cycle is an abundant metabolite in plants that functions as modulator or signal transducer (Noctor et al. 2002; Gomez et al. 2004; Noctor and Foyer 1998). GSH and GSSH may also function as signal molecules in many cellular processes. It shows strong interplay between concentration and the redox state. Glutathione pool level might be regulated, at least partially, by hydrogen peroxide and on the redox state of the plastochinon pool (Karpinski et al.

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