By Karen E. Kim
Top specialists within the fields of gastroenterology, surgical procedure, and radiology comprehensively overview the pathophysiology, analysis, administration, and remedy of acute bleeding issues of the GI tract. The authors holiday down acute bleeding into top and decrease GI tract resources and supply a differential prognosis for every ailment, evidence-based algorithms for scientific perform, remedy modalities for its administration, and criteria of care. The authors define the numerous dilemmas confronted through physicians of their method of their sufferers, corresponding to localization of the bleeding resource (upper vs lower), the necessity and timing for emergency endoscopy, and the timing for radiologic intervention and/or surgical procedure.
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Extra info for Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Diagnosis and Treatment (Clinical Gastroenterology)
Study, the prevalence increased from approximately 10% at age 20 years to approximately 50% at 60 years (14). The mechanism(s) by which H. pylori causes ulcer disease is not entirely clear. The organism does not invade the gastric mucosa, yet it induces an intense local and systemic host inflammatory response. This inflammation enhances mucosal susceptibility to acid injury. In addi- Chapter 3 / Peptic Ulcer Disease 39 tion, it disrupts the control of gastric acid secretion, leading in some patients to high acid and in others to low acid secretion.
Ingestion of strongly acid or alkaline solutions may lead to rapid and severe esophageal injury. Alkali injury leads to liquefaction necrosis and deeper injury than the coagulation necrosis associated with acid ingestion. The mucosa may become friable or deeply ulcerated and may perforate in severe cases. Esophageal injury may be present in the absence of oral lesions (108). Dysphagia, odynophagia, hematemesis, hoarseness, or stridor may develop. Optimal timing of endoscopy is controversial; endoscopy is contraindicated if suspicion of perforation exists.
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