An Extended Entity-Relationship Model: Fundamentals and by Martin Gogolla

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By Martin Gogolla

This article offers a complete advent to a longer Entity-Relationship version either on a conceptual and on a proper, mathematicallevel. as well as the primitives given through the information version the textual content introduces a language for the formula of constraints so as to limit database states to constant ones. The textual content explains an implementation of the procedure selected within the common sense programing language PROLOG and discusses during this context the computational strength of the proposedcalculus. The prolonged Entity-Relationship calculus is used to outline the that means of the relational question language SQL. a pleasant characteristic of the procedure is that it turns into attainable to end up language homes on a valid mathematical foundation.

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UNDEF(addr(p)) is a formula with free variable p. It holds iff the person assigned to p by a has an unknown address. SECTION 3D. RANGES AND DECLARATIONS 47 7. s IS w is a formula with the free variables s and w. It holds iff the b o d y of water assigned to w by c~ is the sea assigned to s. 8. V (t:TOWN) (tpopulation(t) > 100,000) ::~ 3 (p:PERSON) (is-mayor-of(p,t)) is a formula without free variables. This formula holds, iff every town with more than 100,000 inhabitants has a mayor. Section 3D Ranges and Declarations Up to now, it has not been possible to let variables range over data values, since we have only allowed declarations of the form (v:s), s E E N T T Y P E or s E RELTYPE.

15: Type constructions as specializations. 15 coincide with town specializations to towns having a port and with town specializations to towns being capitals, respectively. This is an example of an entity 30 C H A P T E R 2. S T R U C T U R E OF D A T A A N D E N T I T I E S type which is the input for two type constructions. , an entity type which is the output of two type constructions is not allowed, because this would destroy the property that an entity has a uniquely determined construction path.

A:LTS(addr(p))) is a declaration of variable a with the single free variable p, which binds a to the addresses of the person assigned to the variable p by a given assignment a. 3. (p:LTS(ministers(e))) is a declaration of variable p with the single free variable c, which binds p to the set of ministers of the country assigned to c by assignment a. 4. (str : BTS -[ tname(t) [ (t:TOWN) ]- t_J BTS -[ city(a) [ (a:LTS(addr(p)));(p:PERSON) ]-) is a declaration of the variable str without free variables.

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