Rome's Enemies (4) : Spanish Armies 218-19 BC (Men at Arms by Rafael Treviño Martinez, Angus McBride

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By Rafael Treviño Martinez, Angus McBride

The Republican Roman military suffered heavy losses because of the 'hit and run' strategies hired via the Hispanics in historic Spain. After preparatory chanting, the Celt-Iberians may assault en masse and in obvious sickness. At a pre-arranged sign the soldiers might retreat as though defeated. This series will be repeated over a number of days, until eventually ultimately the Romans misplaced their self-discipline and broke formation in pursuit. At this aspect the Hispanics may fast mount a counter-attack that may decimate the legions. This quantity explores the agency, strategies, background, palms and armour of Rome's Spanish enemies.

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Additional resources for Rome's Enemies (4) : Spanish Armies 218-19 BC (Men at Arms Series, 180)

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Eutherius, he tells, was born of free status in Armenia, captured as a child by neighbouring enemies, castrated and sold to Roman merchants, who brought him to Constantine's palace. He educated himself as best he could, and displayed remarkable judgment and loyalty. Transferred to the service of Constans, he exercised his influence, but in vain, to keep him on the right track. Promoted to be Julian's praepositus, he had a healthily sobering influence on the enthusiastic young Caesar. He finally retired to Rome, where he long lived respected and liked by all ranks of society.

From the time of Constantine a high proportion of the magistri militumy both in the West and in the East, were of barbarian origin, and though there were temporary reactions, notably in the West after the fall of Stilicho, barbarians continued to receive the highest military offices down to the early sixth century. These men seem on the whole to have been assimilated into the higher aristocracy. They and their sons and daughters intermarried with the great noble families, even with the imperial house itself: Theodosius I gave his niece Serena to the Vandal Stilicho, and Arcadius married the daughter of Bauto the Frank.

Finally the frequent doubling of the posts of procurator and legate or proconsul must have resulted in the amalgamation of the procurator's staff, with its small military officium of judicial clerks, and its larger slave and freedman familia of accountants, with that of the legate or proconsul, with its large judicial and rudimentary financial staff of 1 military clerks. Diocletian appears to have standardised and simplified the officia without radically altering their structure and personnel. Imperial freedmen must still have been an important element in the civil service at the end of the reign, for the first edict against the Christians prescribed a special penalty, enslavement, for a class described in Eusebius' Greek by a phrase {pi iv olxsrtatg) which may be a translation of 'qui in familiis (Caesaris) sunt', and seems to correspond to the Caesariam of Valerian's edict against the THE ORIGINS OF THE SERVICE Christians.

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