By Drechsel, P., Kunze, D. (Eds.)
Swift urbanization has created an enormous problem with reference to waste administration and environmental safeguard. in spite of the fact that, the matter will be ameliorated via turning natural waste into compost to be used as an agricultural fertilizer in city and peri-urban components. this can be in particular major in much less built international locations, the place meals safety is additionally a key factor. This publication addresses those matters and is principally in keeping with papers provided at a workshop held in Ghana by way of the overseas Board for Soil study and administration (now a part of the foreign Water administration Institute) and FAO. certain reference is given to sub-Saharan Africa, with acknowledgement to reports from different elements of the realm. on hand In Print
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Additional info for Waste composting for urban and peri-urban agriculture: closing the rural-urban nutrient cycle in sub-Saharan Africa
23 January – 7 March 1994. Visit Report, Project No. A0354 for Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK, 69 pp. M. (1995a) Visit to Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, December 1995. Report to Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK. M. (1995b) Organic Wastes and Peri-urban Horticulture. Visit to Kumasi, Ghana, November 1995. Report to Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK, 27 pp. Maung, M. (1982) Utilization of Rural and Urban Wastes to Improve Soil Fertility. FAO/SIDA Workshop on the use of organic materials for improving soil productivity in the Near East, (Alexandria, Egypt, 9 October, 1978).
Maxwell and Zziwa (1992) also specifically asked farmers in Kampala if they made use of urban wastes but none did. Apart from an unwillingness to use the wastes, they believe that they had no value in agriculture. Lack of technical advice was also one of the most significant constraints voiced by other farmers. Streiffeler (1987) reports that some cultivators in Kisangani, Zaire, observed that yields of cassava and banana were declining. The people realized that it was because they were not fertilizing their crops adequately but did not know that compost could substitute for expensive or unavailable chemical fertilizers.
Additional loans must be taken out. Alternatives must be selected with lower financing costs/depreciation and hence lower investment costs. In this case the cost calculation must be carried out again (iterative calculation process). Contribution margin The contribution margin shows whether a profit or loss can be expected from composting and how high, expressed in units of currency, the profit or loss will be per year or per tonne of compost. The contribution margin is calculated by comparing overall costs with overall earnings.